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Manuscript Preparation Details

Articles submitted to Human Technology for consideration may be written in any recognized publication style. However, if the article is taken into the publication consideration process, all revised versions must be written within Human Technology’s editorial style guidelines for citations, references, and English language, which is a modified version of the style presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (referred to here as the APA Manual; 6th ed. is preferred but 5th ed. is acceptable). The author is responsible for meeting these stylistic requirements.

Most elements of Human Technology's editorial style that differ from APA style are provided below. See also the Final Submission Checklist.

Please follow these instructions carefully. Final manuscripts that do not fit the specifications provided may be returned to the author for reformatting or revision.

Papers should be organized according to the elements provided in the gray box. Links to subsections are provided.

1. Title and authorship

Begin the paper with the title of the manuscript (informative but succinct, a maximum of 150 characters and spaces) in all capitalized letters (although upper- and lower-case letters should be used for the title when submitting the manuscript via Provide a running headline for your article (a maximum of 50 characters and spaces), drawn from the title of your paper, which will run at the top of the internal pages. Follow the formal headline of the paper with the full names of the author in the order they should appear on the published version and the affiliation (department and institution/organization and country) of each author.

2. Abstract and keywords

Each manuscript must include an abstract, 120–150 words in length, that presents the significant issues and findings of the paper. Define any abbreviations included in the abstract. Following the abstract, supply 4 to 6 keywords/phrases that characterize the scope of the paper and can be used for indexing purposes.

3. Body of Text

All empirical manuscripts submitted to Human Technology should follow, minimally, the standard organization for empirical research reporting: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. If necessary, see the APA manual for a fuller explanation of these areas. In addition, papers published in Human Technology should include an additional section, presented as the final section, titled, generally, Implications for Theory, Application, or Policy (adapted, as needed, to the nature/topic of the paper’s research). This section should provide a brief (approximately 150 words) summary of the meaningful implications and contributions of the research for immediate application or practice, ongoing theory development, and/or policy considerations.

For theoretical and review manuscripts, the sections may vary but still must be structured in a logical manner and present the information necessary for the reader to clearly see what the researcher has done and with sufficient grounding.

For the five key components of an empirical manuscript, the following questions can be useful in improving the completeness of your paper. These questions may also assist authors of theoretical and review manuscripts.

Introduction: Is there sufficient supporting literature for the research aims, research questions, and methodology selected? Does the paper provide sufficient background for the reader to understand the foundation of the research? Is the aim of the research project justified and the gap in the literature identified that the research fills? Which questions framed the research?

Methods: Is the methodology employed (for both data collection and data analysis) fully explained? Could another researcher follow your methods to reach reasonably similar results?

Results: Are the results clear and complete?

Discussion: Is the discussion of the results complete and well grounded? How are the research questions answered by the results and discussion? Do the results and discussion support or are supported by other studies in the literature; if not, why might that be the case? 

Conclusions: Are the research aims/questions and key findings briefly recapped? Are the limitations of the study (and, if appropriate, possible avenues for future research) noted? The Conclusion section is optional and is the logical place to discuss limitations of the study and avenues for future research. If the author chooses not to include a Conclusions section, this information should be addressed in the Discussion. 

Implications for Theory, Application, or Policy: What specifically does this research add to the field in regard to theory, application or practice, or policy? Please note that the tone of the Implications section is future-oriented, meaning how do the results of your research bring implications to future theory/research, application/practice, or policy decision or practices.

Additionally, the style of the article involves several distinct areas (provided below), each of which is important to present the research clearly and accurately, particularly to non-native readers of English and from a variety of scientific fields. Please implement Human Technology’s editorial style guidelines specifically.

Editorial style

For editorial style issues not specifically addressed in this document or the APA Manual, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th—or later—edition). Questions regarding spelling, abbreviations, and foreign phrases should be referred to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.

Each paragraph must include at least two sentences. Please organize the material so that paragraphs clearly lead the reader through the article’s key points, without unnecessary repetition or loss of continuity.

Technical style

Human Technology publishes its articles in a one column format. Please prepare manuscripts likewise, with the following margins:

Top margin: 3.8 cm for A4 paper (1.5 inches for USA letter size)
Side margins: 2.54 cm (1 inch)
Bottom margin: 3.7 cm (.75 inch)

There is no minimum or maximum length designated for papers published in Human Technology, although quality research manuscripts typically fill at least 15 pages in single-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font (including references). However, the entire document, including all figures and tables, should be no larger than 3MB. Zip files of the final manuscript are accepted.

Structure the margins to be fully justified (straight margins left and right). Do not specifically auto-format elements of the paper (particularly endnotes, citations, and references), and do not add manually inserted return spaces except after headings and ends of the paragraph. Use the software program’s automatic page numbering for the manuscript, with the page number centered in the footer.

When structuring your manuscript, use three or fewer layers of headings (in addition to the paper title). Do not create the heading structure through a formatting process in the software; please do it manually. Do not add numbers to your headings. The headings should be organized as follows:


(centered, bold, 15-point Arial font, all capitalized)


(centered, bold, 12-point Arial, all capitalized)

Level 2 Heading

(Uppercase major words [i.e., no articles or prepositions that are fewer than four letters in length], bold, 12-point Arial, flush left)

Level 3 Heading

(uppercase major words [i.e., no articles or prepositions that are fewer than four letters in length], indented 1 cm/.4 in., 12-point Arial)

Do not indent the first paragraph after a heading; all other paragraphs are indented. Use the software’s manual tab set for .75 cm or .3 in. Do not indent by using the space bar, and do not program the formatting to create indentations automatically.

Do not adjust the visual presentation of your document by using any additional formatting options within your software program beyond its standard (basic) functions. All formatting for visual appeal will be handled during the layout phase.

Language style

Please be sure the manuscript is written in good quality English and organized in a coherent, easy to follow style. Papers lacking adequate language or organizational quality may be returned to the author for improvement in the appropriate areas or rejected outright. If necessary, the author should secure the assistance of an English-language editor experienced in academic English and, if possible, the APA style.

Key terms used in the document should be italicized on first use only. Because this is an interdisciplinary journal, terms not easily identifiable by persons from diverse fields of study should be defined on first use, even if they are common knowledge in the author’s field.

Use abbreviations only if it will help clarify reader comprehension within the article. Abbreviations in a figure must be explained either in a caption or in the legend. For tables, the abbreviation must be explained either in the table title (if the title includes words that are abbreviated within the body of the table) or in the table notes. The abbreviation must be explained in every table or figure in which it is used. However, in the body of the text, once an abbreviation is introduced, only the abbreviation should be used in subsequent text (never the full words). All tables and figures should be able to “stand alone,” meaning that a reader can understand what is being communicated without having to read the paper.

Do not hyphenate words unless it is part of its normal spelling (e.g., self-esteem); consult the APA manual for a list of nonhyphenated prefixes. Turn off the automatic hyphenation option on your word processor. Do not manually hyphenate words at the end of the screen line: Any hyphenation needed to even line lengths during final layout of the manuscript will be managed as part of the layout process. Because the hyphenation of words is determined by how the word is used within the context of the sentence, Human Technology’s copyeditors will rely on the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary for guidance.

Human Technology does not use footnotes, but rather endnotes. Please manually add endnote numeric notation within the body by way of superscript Arabic numerals in the font options under the Home tab (in MS Word). In the endnotes section at the end of the manuscript text, the corresponding number and text should be noted with normal size numbers followed by a period and the material. Use endnotes sparingly. However, all texts that require reprint permission should be acknowledged either with the figure or with an endnote indicating such permission from the copyright owner(s), with copies of such permission submitted to the managing editor of Human Technology. See the APA Manual for more information on securing copyright reprint permission.

Scientific style

Human Technology uses the metric system for physical measurements, based on the International System of Units (SI). For experiments not conducted in metric units, an author may provide the nonmetric units, with the SI equivalent following in parentheses.

Please verify that any statistical information included is correct and accurately and clearly presented. Use standard abbreviations (see the APA Manual) when presenting data.

In-text reference style

All direct and indirect quotes and the ideas of others’ work must be properly cited; direct quotes require a page number. Direct quotes over 40 words should be presented in block form rather than within quotation marks inside the body of the text. Quotations from individuals that are drawn from one’s data should be italicized and comply with either the in-text or block quotation styles.

For in-text citations, follow the APA Manual: author(s)’ last name, followed by the source’s year of publication and, if citing a direct quote or lightly paraphrased quote, the page number(s). Substantively paraphrased material does not require a page number. When multiple citations are presented simultaneously, citations are listed in alphabetical order, based on the last name of the first author. Three examples are provided here; please consult the APA Manual for details on other types of citations. (Recently published papers by Human Technology can also be sources of appropriate referencing style.)

  • If the author(s) is(are) mentioned in the body of the text, the citation would be
    According to Axel, Smith, Parker, and Bradenton (1997)... [used for first citation in text; used as Axel et al. (1997) in subsequent mentions]
  • If the author(s) is not mentioned by name in the body of the text, the citation would be
    ... as previous studies have shown (Axel, Smith, Parker, & Bradenton, 1997; Collingswood, in press; Paleceed & Barselle, 1977).... [used for first citation in text; used as (Axel et al., 1997, Collingswood, in press; Paleceed & Barselle, 1977) on subsequent mentions]
  • If you are directly quoting from a source, you need to provide the page number where the quote can be found. It might look like this:
    According to Axel, Smith, Parker, and Bradenton (1997, p. 332), "The data indicates ...," and this has been suggested as well by other researchers (see Collingswood, in press; Paleceed & Barselle, 1977, chap. 5).

Please notice that the word and is used to indicate the last in a list of multiple authors of a source in the body of the text; an ampersand (&) is used within parenthetical citations. Notice also that a comma (,) separates the multiple sources of an author; a semicolon (;) separates multiple sources.

For sources that have three to five authors, list all authors on first reference, and the first author and et al. on subsequent citations (e.g., Carlyle, Kahlil, Tennenbaum, Bristol, & Schank, 2004, on first reference; Carlyle et al., 2004, for subsequent citations). Sources with two authors are presented with both names on every use; sources with six or more authors are presented using first author name and et al. on every use.

For citations drawn from the Internet, treat the source in the typical citation form within the body of the text (name of author or Web source’s organization, publication date, and, if needed, page/paragraph number). The URL is to be provided in the reference listing, not the body of the text. See the paragraph that addresses Internet references in Section 4 below for further information. Consult the APA manual for other citation sources.

4. Reference List

Unlike the APA Manual, Human Technology requires the references at the end of the submission to be single-spaced. In addition, Human Technology requests that all authors of a source be listed, up to 25 authors. Finally, if the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or the Uniform Resource Name (URN) of any cited literature is available, please include it with the reference material. (Please note that the APA has changed its formatting for DOIs to bring it in line with the directives of CrossRef. Now DOIs should be presented in the following way, for example,

Please verify that the reference list includes only sources cited within the body of the text and all citations within the text are also found in the reference list. Be sure all names and words are spelled correctly, and the dates of publication are correct. A few examples for references are provided here; more detailed examples, including for citations of electronic, audio and visual materials, can be found in the APA Manual. Please follow those guidelines carefully.

Sources presented in the reference list should be listed in alphabetical order of the surname of the first author; multiple titles by the same author(s) should be presented in chronological order.

  • If the source is a journal article by one or two authors, the reference formatting would be
    Beilharz, R. G., & Cox, D. F. (1967). Social dominance in swine. Animal Behavior, 15(2), 117–122.
    Please note that if a journal has sequential pagination for a volume (the page numbers in each issue follow those of previous issues in the particular volume), an issue number (in parentheses, following the italicized volume number) is acceptable. However, if each issue in a volume begins with Page 1, then the issue number is required.
  • If the source is an article or chapter that is contained within an edited book, the reference formatting would be
    Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R. G. Green & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy (pp. 73–109). San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
  • If the source is a manuscript that has been accepted for publication but not yet printed, the reference formatting would be
    Jasinskaja, L., Leibkind, K., Horenczyk, G., & Schmitz, P. (in press). The interactive nature of acculturation: Perceived discrimination, acculturation attitudes and stress among young ethnic repatriates in Finland, Israel and Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations.
  • Proceedings drawn from conferences, seminars, workshops, and the like, can be presented in one of three ways. If the material is drawn from printed proceedings, then treat the reference as a chapter from an edited book:
    Andersen, P. B. (1999). Elastic interfaces: Maritime instrumentation as an example. In J. M. Hoc, P. Millot, E. Hollnagel, & P. C. Cacciabue (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control (CSAPC'99; pp. 35–41). Valenciennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Valenciennes.
    Note that some published proceedings do not include editors. In those situations, simply use the formatting In Proceedings of ...

    If the source is not published, then one of these two options may be most appropriate:
    Clancy, C. (2005, October). Health information technology, quality of care and evidence-based medicine: An interlinked triad. Presentation given at the Annual Symposium, American Medical Informatics Association, Washington, DC, USA. Retrieved March 27, 2006, from

    Mäkeläinen, B., Nurminen, M., Reijonen, P., & Torvinen, V. (1996, August). Everyday use between success and failure: Making sense with onion layers. Paper presented at the 19th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS), Lokeberg, Sweden.

Please note that, in most cases, only the first letter of the first word of a title (and the first word after the colon in a compound title) and proper nouns are capitalized. Titles of journals and books, and the volume numbers of journals, are italicized.

For references drawn from the Internet, please provide the complete URL for the actual webpage to which you are referring. Do not place a period after the URL. Provide a retrieval date for the citation, and check prior to publication that the URL is still active. No-longer-active URLs cannot be included in the published paper. For direct quotes, provide the paragraph number (or section heading and then paragraph number, for long online sources). Regarding a webpage’s publication date, use either the copyright date or the last updated date. If neither of these exists, provide the notation n.d. (no date) as your publication year.

Prepare the reference list with all references flush left; do not use the spacebar or tab to create the indentations or add spaces between the references. The correct formatting of these will be handled during the layout process. Please verify the correct spelling of each element of the reference listing and that the dates of publication and page spread (if needed) are correct. All locations for publishers must include the city (and, if required, state/province), followed by the country. Abbreviate only the USA and the UK. Be sure the publisher’s name is complete.

5. Author's Note

Any author's note (if needed) should be as brief as possible. It is within this note that the author mentions grant support (with the names of the funding organizations provided in full and, if necessary, grant number); notes of previous uses of the material contained in the manuscript; acknowledges individuals who provided significant assistance in the preparation of the manuscript; and addresses any perceived conflict of interest. Human Technology’s style is not to acknowledge the contribution of the anonymous reviewers; these experts are thanked publicly in a biennial acknowledgement in our journal.

All manuscripts should include the name and addresses (postal address and email) for the contact author. Please use the phrasing--All correspondence should be addressed to--followed by the corresponding author's full name, affiliation, and addresses.

6. Appendixes

Include appendixes only if they provide essential information not possible within the body of the article. Please consult the APA Manuals for titling of appendixes.

7. Figures, Illustrations and Tables

Manuscripts should use visual elements only to clarify or expound the text. All figures and tables must be able to “stand-alone,” which means a reader can understand fully what is being communicated by the table or figure without having to read the article. Sufficient titling, captioning and legends make this goal possible.

Figures, illustrations, and tables should be created using the Arial font (8-11 points). Any exceptions to the point size will be decided only by the journal staff. Do not provide lines around figures and tables unless negotiated with Human Technology’s staff. Visual elements must fit within the designated margins of the page: the maximum width is 16 cm (6.25 in.) and the maximum length is 22.2 cm (8.75 in); large, detailed tables may be provided in a landscape orientation. Color is permitted in creating charts, graphs, and figures, but the clarity of the figure must also be apparent when the figure is printed in black & white (including variations in the color values to provide discernable versions of gray). Tables should be created in such a way as internal lines are not needed.

All illustrations (line art, photographs, graphs, or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text (numbered consecutively as they are mentioned; one series of numbers is to be used for the figures/illustrations and a separate series for the tables). In most situations, do not introduce graphic elements until they are needed because the graphic will be embedded as close as possible to the text that introduces the item’s number. Figure parts (several small figures or images that compose an interrelated image) should be identified with lower-case Roman letters and positioned in relation to each other. All components of illustrations, tables, and figure parts that form a specific visual element should be electronically grouped together (meaning that the full visual element should be able to be moved as a unique and complete entity). Legends, if necessary, must be positioned within the body of the graph.

Any scanned images (line art, or b/w or color photographs) should be created with high enough resolution (300 dpi is the minimum recommended) to see the necessary detail in a PDF version of the document on the computer screen and in print. Scanned images must be saved in either JPEG or TIFF formats.

Vector graphics created in a separate graphics program should be exported into an EPS file and then imported into the Word or RTF document. The EPS files must always contain a preview of the figure in TIFF format.

Tables should be presented with a table title (table number followed by a period and then the title with major words capitalized) centered above the table. If needed, a table caption should positioned beneath the table (flush left), beginning with the word Note. All forms of figures should provide a caption (figure number, followed a period, and the caption, with only the first word of each sentence capitalized) centered below the figure.

If a figure includes photographic images in which people are visually identifiable, it is the responsibility of the authors to obtain the permission of these persons for their images to be published in Human Technology. Please submit a copy of those photo agreements with the Author’s Warranty paperwork or upon request of the journal management staff.


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