Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2022-10-03

Smart Living Technologies in the Context of Improving the Quality of Life For Older People: The Case of the Humanoid Rudy Robot

Bialystok University of Technology
Bialystok University of Technology
smart living technologies ageing society older people Software Robots technology assessment


Smart living is an essential dimension of an ageing society because one of its measures includes living conditions (health, safety, housing). Many technological solutions are designed to satisfy the needs of older people living in cities. Humanoid robots are one of the technologies that can significantly improve the quality of life in older adults. The Rudy Robot is an example of a robot adapted to the needs of older people. The conducted research aimed to gain knowledge about the potential future use of the humanoid Rudy Robot by older adults in the context of smart living. The study mainly aimed to identify the robot’s most important functionalities that could improve older adults’ quality of life based on a literature review. In addition, the Rudy Robot was rated according to the most important criteria for evaluating the robot. The paper also examined whether age, sex, education and place of residence affect the assessment of the Rudy Robot technology. It should be noted that this technology is not available in Poland but has become known due to television, the Internet, etc. Respondents received a description of this technology, examples of use, and links to literature and films together with the questionnaire; thus, they knew what the Rudy Robot was and its characteristics, possibilities and potential.


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Angelini, L., Nyffeler, N., Caon, M., Jean-Mairet, M., Carrino, S., Mugellini, E. and Bergeron, L. (2013). Designing a Desirable Smart Bracelet for Older Adults, Proceedings of UbiComp’13, Zurich, Switzerland, 425-433. DOI:
  2. Arthanat, S., Wilcox, J., & Macuch, M. (2019). Profiles and Predictors of Smart Home Technology Adoption by Older Adults. OTJR. Occupation, Participation, and Health, 39(4), 247–256. DOI:
  3. Baraniewicz-Kotasińska S. (2017). Smart city. Ujęcie nowych technologii w koncepcji inteligentnego miasta, Nowoczesne Systemy Zarządzania, 12, (3), 30. DOI:
  4. Beer, J. M. Prakash, A. Mitzner, T.L., & Rogers, W.A. (2011). Understanding Robot Acceptance Technical Report HFA-TR-1103 Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology School of Psychology Human Factors and Aging Laboratory, Retrieved from, [21.04.2021].
  5. Bibri, S.E., Krogstie, J. (2017). Smart Sustainable Cities of the Future: An Extensive Interdisciplinary Literature Review. Sustainable Cities and Society, 31, p. 184. DOI:
  6. Brooke, J., & Jackson D. (2020). Older people and COVID‐19: Isolation, risk and ageism, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(13-14), 2044-2046. DOI:
  7. Cajita, M. I., Hodgson, N. A., Lam, K. W., Yoo, S., & Han, H. R. (2018). Facilitators of and Barriers to mHealth Adoption in Older Adults With Heart Failure. Computers, informatics, nursing: CIN, 36(8), 376–382. http:// DOI:
  8. Cajita, M. I., Hodgson, N.A., Budhathoki, C., & Han, H. R. (2017). Intention to Use mHealth in Older Adults with Heart Failure. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 32(6), E1–E7. DOI:
  9. Caragliu, A., Bo, C., D, Nijkamp, P. (2009). Smart Cities in Europe, Journal of Urban Technology, 18 (2), 65-82. DOI:
  10. Chan, M., Campo, E., Bourennane, W., Bettahar, F. and Charlon, Y. (2014) Mobility Behavior Assessment Using a Smart-Monitoring System to Care for the Elderly in a Hospital Environment, Proceedings of PETRA ‘14, 1-5. DOI:
  11. Ejdys, J. (2020). Trust-Based Determinants of Future Intention to Use Technology. Foresight and STI Governance, 14(1), 60–68. DOI: 10.17323/2500-2597.2020.1.60.68 DOI:
  12. Ejdys, J., Halicka, K. (2018). Sustainable adaptation of new technology – The case of humanoids used for the care of older adults. Sustainability, 10(10), 3770. DOI:
  13. Ester, M.-Martin; Angel, P. del Pobil (2018). Personal Robot Assistants for Elderly Care: An Overview. In Personal Assistants: Emerging Computational Technologies; Costa, A.; Julian, V.; Novais, P., Eds.; Publisher: Springer, Switzerland, 132, 77–91. DOI:
  14. EU Project. RAMCIP—Robotic Assistant for MCI Patients at Home. 2015–2020. Retrieved from https: // [05.07.2022].)
  15. Ezer, N., Fisk, A. & Rogers, W. (2009). Attitudinal and intentional acceptance of domestic robots by younger and older adults. In C. Stephanidis (Eds.), Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Ubiquitous Interaction Environments, 5615, 39-48. DOI:
  16. Fraunhofer IPA, Care-O-Bot 3, Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  17. Görer, B.; Salah, A.A.; Akın, H.L (2016). An autonomous robotic exercise tutor for elderly people. Autonomous Robots, 41, 657–678. doi:10.1007/s10514-016-9598-5 DOI:
  18. Gudowsky N., Sotoudeha M., Caparia, L., Wilfing, H. (2017). Transdisciplinary forward-looking agenda setting for age-friendly, human centered cities. Futures, 90, 16-30. DOI:
  19. Halicka K. (2017). Main Concepts of Technology Analysis in the Light of the Literature on the Subject, Procedia Engineering, 182, 291-298. DOI:
  20. Halicka K. (2019). Gerontechnology — the assessment of one selected technology improving the quality of life of older adults, Engineering Management in Production and Services, 11(2), 43-51. DOI: 10.2478/emj-2019-0010 DOI:
  21. Halicka K., Kacprzak D. (2021). Linear ordering of selected gerontechnologies using selected MCGDM methods, Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 27(4):947, 921-947. DOI:10.3846/tede.2021.15000. DOI:
  22. Halicka K., Surel D. (2021). Gerontechnology — new opportunities in the service of older adults, Engineering Management in Production and Services, 13(3), 114-126. DOI:10.2478/emj-2021-0025. DOI:
  23. Halicka, K. (2020). Technology selection using the TOPSIS method. Foresight and STI Governance, 14(1),85–96. DOI:
  24. INF Robotics, Rudy, Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  25. Infuture Hatalska Foresight Institute, Smart Living Report, 2019. Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  26. Joseph, A., Christian, B., Abiodun, A.A., Oyawale, F. (2018). A review on humanoid robotics in healthcare, MATEC Web of Conferences 153, 02004. DOI:
  27. Langer, A., Ronit Feingold-Polaka, R., Mueller, O., Kellmeyer, P., & Levy-Tzedek, S. (2019), Trust in socially assistive robots: Considerations for use in rehabilitation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 104, 231-239. DOI:
  28. Luxton, D.D.; Riek, L.D. (2019). Artificial intelligence and robotics in rehabilitation. In Handbook of Rehabilitation Psychology; 3rd ed., American Psychological Association: Washington DC, 507–520. doi:10.1037/0000129-031. DOI:
  29. Mann, H.B. and Whitney, D.R. (1947). On a Test of Whether One of Two Random Variables Is Stochastically Larger than the Other. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 18, 50-60. DOI:
  30. Martinez-Martin, E. Escalona F., Cazorla, M. (2020). Socially Assistive Robots for Older Adults and People with Autism: An overview, Electronics, 9, 367, doi:10.3390/electronics9020367 DOI:
  31. Martinez-Martin, E.; Costa, A.; Cazorla, M. (2019). PHAROS 2.0—A Physical Assistant Robot System Improved. Sensors 19, 4531. doi:10.3390/s19204531 DOI:
  32. Nazarko, L. (2017). Future-oriented technology assessment. Procedia Engineering, 182, 504–509. DOI:
  33. OECD, Ageing in Cities, 2015, Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  34. Oh, S.; Oh, Y.H.; Ju, D.Y. (2019). Understanding the Preference of the Elderly for Companion Robot Design Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer International Publishing: New York City, 92–103. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-20467-9_9 DOI:
  35. Robotics Business Review, Rudy Assistive Robot Helps Elderly Age in Place, Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  36. Robots. Your guide to the world of Robotics, Cody Robot, Retrieved from [30.06.2021]
  37. Rudy Assistive Robot Helps Elderly Age in Place, Retrieved from [05.07.2022].
  38. Softbank Robotics, Pepper Robot, Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  39. Stawasz D., Sikora-Fernadez D. (2016). Koncepcja smart city na tle procesów i uwarunkowań rozwoju współczesnych miast. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź
  40. Stawasz, D., Sikora-Fernadez, D. (2015). Zarządzanie w polskich miastach zgodnie z koncepcją smart city, Wydawnictwo Placet. Warszawa.
  41. Szpilko, D. (2020). Foresight as a Tool for the Planning and Implementation of Visions for Smart City Development. Energies, 13, 1782. DOI:
  42. Tannou T., Lihoreau T., Gagnon-Roy M., Grondin, M., Bier, N. (2022). Effectiveness of smart living environments to support older adults to age in place in their community: an umbrella review protocol, BMJ Open, 12(1):e054235. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054235 DOI:
  43. Tech-enhanced Life, Smart Living room features for older adults, Retrieved from [23.02.2022].
  44. The Senior List, Smart Technology Enables Independent Living for Seniors, Retrieved from [23.02.2022].
  45. United Nations, Word Population Ageing 2019 Highlights. Retrieved from [30.06.2021].
  46. Vienna University of Technology. (2007). Smart Cities. Ranking of European medium-sized cities, Retrieved from [30.06.2021]
  47. Willcoxon, F. (1945). Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods, Biometrics Bulletin, 1(6), 80-83. DOI:
  48. Wilson, G.; Pereyda, C.; Raghunath, N.; de la Cruz, G.; Goel, S.; Nesaei, S.; Minor, B.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, M.; Taylor, M.; Cook, D.J. (2019). Robot-enabled support of daily activities in smart home environments. Cognitive Systems Research, 54, 258–272. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2018.10.032 DOI:
  49. Winkowska, J., Szpilko, D., Pejic, S. (2019). Smart city concept in the light of the literature review. Engineering Management in Production and Services, 11(2), 70-86. DOI:

How to Cite

Halicka, K., & Surel, D. (2022). Smart Living Technologies in the Context of Improving the Quality of Life For Older People: The Case of the Humanoid Rudy Robot. Human Technology, 18(2), 191–208.